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                    THE EFFICACY OF THE WORD

 

                       The Means of Grace

          False Doctrines concerning the Means of Grace

                             Baptism

                         Holy Communion

                           The Sermon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                       Gregory L. Jackson

            Member, Church of the Lutheran Confession

                   230 S. Brentwood Boulevard

                    Clayton, Missouri  63105

                          314-721-3349

 

                         I.The Means of Grace, General

               Heart of the New Testament                       5

                              Losing Sight of the Means of Grace  5

               Luther and the Means of Grace                    5

                               Do the Means of Grace Limit God?   5

               Peculiar Glory of the Lutheran Church            6

               Power to Work and Strengthen Faith               6

                         True Treasure                          7

               All Glory to God                                 7

               God Asked No One's Advice                        8

                                  Means of Grace and Victory    9

                                Word Not a Lifeless Instrument  9

               Justification and the Means of Grace            10

               Anything Else - Of the Devil                    10

               Law Not a Means of Grace                        10

                                         Opinio Legis          10

                                 Practical Need of Christians  10

 

     II.False Doctrines about the Means of Grace

 

A.  Rome

               Rome and Infant Baptism                         11

               Rome and Limbo                                  12

               Gratia Infusa                                   12

     Papistic Media Gratiae                                    13

                             Catholic Church Existed before Bible  13

 

                                                       The Papal Mass

               Transubstantiation                              13

               Mass Theatrics                                  14

               Perversions of the Mass                         14

               Mass for the Dead                               14

               Mass as Sacrifice                               14

                                 Mass as Sacrifice Condemned   16

               Mass and Purgatory                              17

               The Effective Mass                              18

               Augustine and Purgatory Help                    19

               Vatican II and Purgatory                        20

               Council of Trent and Purgatory                  20

                               Comforting Thoughts of Purgatory 20

               Money for Masses                                20

               Mary as Co-Redeemer                             21

 

     B.  Enthusiasm

               Means of Grace                                  21

               Revivalism and Enthusiasm                       22

 

     C.  Calvin and Zwingli

               Reformed Rationalism                            23

               Young Calvinist, Old Unitarian                  23

               Rejection of the Sacraments                     23

               Denial of Real Presence                         24

               Rejection Condemned                             24

                                   No Means of Grace for Calvinists      24

               Calvin Confused about Gospel                    25

               Word Separate from Spirit                       25

     Sacraments                                                26

               Calvin and the Means of Grace                   27

               Calvin and Baptism                              27

               Calvin Piously Denies Real Presence             28

               Calvin and Zwingli                              28

               Nine Lies to Defend One Lie                     29

               Zwingli: Bold and Vulgar                        29

                                                                           The Reformed

               Reformed Preaching                              30

               Reformed Not Consistent                         31

               Contempt for Means of Grace                     32

               Spiritual Pride                                 32

     Prayer Not a Means of Grace                               32

     Reformed and the Means of Grace                           33

               Reformed on Warpath against Means of Grace      33

               Self-Deception                                  33

               Karl Barth                                      34

               Hodge and Means of Grace                        34

     Synergists                                                34

               Heretics' Enmity                                34

               Indifferentism Out of Place                     34

               Separate Visible and Invisible Church           35

               Weakened Confessionalism                        35

               Reformed Errors Filtered through Pietism        36

                         Not Means of Grace but Inward State   36

               Pietist True Church, the Conventicle            37

               No Need for Divine Means                        37

                                Pietists Avoid Doctrinal Issues 37

 

     III.Baptism

                                                  The Anabaptists

     Grace in Baptism                                          38

               Anabaptists Condemned                           38

                                     Contempt for Baptism      38

               But No Children?                                38

               Baptism Not Useless                             38

               The Power of Baptism                            39

                         Infant Baptism                        40

                         Baptism Belongs to God                42

 

     IV.Holy Communion

     Closed Communion                                          43

               Communion as Medicine                           43

               Chrysostom                                      43

     Ignatius                                                  44

               The Moment and the Synodical Conference         44

     God's Honor and Real Presence                             44

 

     V.The Sermon

 

               God's Will and the Sermon                       44

                                   The Lutheran Sermon                   45

                                                                                                                        45

               Diligent to Hear                                45

               Real Church Growth                              45

               God Wills the Word to be Effective              46

                             Do Not Question Work of Holy Spirit  46

               Most Important Act                              46

               Christ Assures Us: the Word is Effective        46

     Efficacy of Judgment                                      47

               Baier:  Power of Word                           47

     Hollazius:  Qualities of Word                             48

               Hulsem:  Holy Spirit Never Absent from Word     49

               Quensted:  Unity of Energy and Operation        50


I.   The Means of Grace, General

 

                   Heart of the New Testament

"The genuine sacraments, therefore, are Baptism, the Lord's Supper,

and absolution (which is the sacrament of penitence), for these

rites have the commandment of God and the promise of grace, which

is the heart of the New Testament."

Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XIII, Number/Use

Sacraments, The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,

Philadelphia:  Fortress Press, 1983, p. 211.

 

               Losing Sight of the Means of Grace

"To remain properly humble while firmly rejecting all erroneous

teachings regarding the means of grace, we should remind ourselves

how even Christians who teach and, as a rule, also believe, the

correct doctrine of the means of grace, in their personal practice

very often lose sight of the means of grace.  This is done whenever

they base the certainty of grace, or of the forgiveness of sin, on

their feeling of grace or the gratia infusa, instead of on God's

promise in the objective means of grace.  All of us are by nature

'enthusiasts.'"

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol.,

trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing

House, 1953, III,  p. 131.

 

                  Luther and the Means of Grace

"No other human writer has so forcefully as Luther set forth the

nature of the divinely ordained means of grace, their importance

for faith and life, and the destructive effect of severing grace

from the means of grace.  For Luther was trained in the school of

the terrors of conscience for the work of reforming the Church,

while Zwingli's reformation and theology sprang largely from the

soil of Humanism and bears a speculative stamp throughout.

Calvinistic theology from Calvin down to our day teaches not so

much the God who has revealed and given Himself to us in His Word,

but at the critical points substitutes speculations regarding the

absolute God for what the divine Word teaches."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 137f.

 

                Do the Means of Grace Limit God?

"Scripture binds all knowledge of Christian truth to the Word of

Christ, who says:  ean humeis meinete ev tw logw tw emw...gnwsesthe

ten aletheian (John 8:31-32).  Faith and regeneration is effected

by the Holy Ghost through the Word (1 Corinthians 2:4-5; 1 Peter

1:23).  The Spirit is received through the hearing of faith

(Galatians 3:2, 5).  The Word of the Cross (ho logos ho tou

staurou) is the power of God to those who are saved (1 Corinthians

1:18).  Hence actually everything that is regarded as brought about

by the Holy Ghost without the Word is factious, 'illusory,'

'self-produced.'  The experience one has, or imagines, without the

means of grace is not the product of the Holy Ghost, but is

'man-made.'"

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 136.

 

"Is it not a limitation of God's sovereignty and power to affirm

that these acts are accomplished only through means?  Theology does

not deal with divine possibilities, but with what God has revealed

concerning Himself and His various forms of activity.  Not only

have we no promise of His intervention otherwise, but He constantly

turns us away from any expectation of such aid to the simple means,

in and through which He promises to be always found with His entire

efficacy."

Henry Eyster Jacobs,

A Summary of the Christian Faith, Philadelphia:  General Council

Publication House, 1913, p. 265.

 

"But in extraordinary cases, does He not dispense with means?

Even there, means are employed; but in an extraordinary way.  At

Pentecost the multitudes were converted through the Word, although

this Word was given under extraordinary conditions and

circumstances, just as the multitudes in the wilderness were

sustained not without bread, but with bread furnished in an

extraordinary manner."

Henry Eyster Jacobs,

A Summary of the Christian Faith, Philadelphia:  General Council

Publication House, 1913, p. 266.

 

             Peculiar Glory of the Lutheran Church

"The doctrine of the means of grace is a peculiar glory of Lutheran

theology.  To this central teaching it owes its sanity and strong

appeal, its freedom from sectarian tendencies and morbid

fanaticism, its coherence and practicalness, and its adaptation to

men of every race and every degree of culture.  The Lutheran

Confessions bring out with great clearness the thought of

the Reformers upon this subject."

"Grace, Means of,"

The Concordia Cyclopedia, L. Fuerbringer, Th. Engelder, P. E.

Kretzmann, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1927,

p. 299.

 

               Power to Work and Strengthen Faith

"We saw before that Scripture ascribes the forgiveness of sins

without reservation to the Word of the Gospel, to Baptism, and to

the Lord's Supper.  Therefore all means of grace have the vis

effectiva, the power to work and to strengthen faith." [Note:

Augsburg Confession, V, XIII]

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 108f.

 

                          True Treasure

"These means are the true treasure of the church through which

salvation in Christ is offered.  They are the objective

proclamation of faith which alone makes man's subjective faith

possible (Augsburg Confession, Article V).  The Formula of Concord

(Solid Declaration, Article XI, 76) states expressly that God

alone draws man to Christ and that he does this only through the

means of grace."

Walter G. Tillmanns, "Means of Grace: Use of,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., Julius Bodensieck,

Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1965, II,  p. 1505.

 

"God bestows His saving grace 'only through the Word and with the

external and preceding Word' (nisi per verbum et cum verbo externo

et praecedente, SA-III VIII, 3; Jn 8:31-32; Ro 10:14-17).

Therefore the Bible inculcates faithful adherence to the Gospel and

the Sacraments administered according to Christ's institution (Mt

28:19-20; Jn 8:31-32; Acts 17:11; Titus 1:9).  Because of the

strong emphasis on the Word in the Lutheran Confessions,

Holy Scripture has rightly been called the Formal Principle of the

Reformation."

John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of,"

Lutheran Cyclopedia, Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1975, p. 343.  John 8:31; Rom 10:14

 

"The Holy Spirit works through the Word and the Sacraments, which

only, in the proper sense, are means of grace.  Both the Word and

the Sacraments bring a positive grace, which is offered to all who

receive them outwardly, and which is actually imparted to all who

have faith to embrace it."

Charles P. Krauth,

The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology, Philadelphia:  The

United Lutheran Publication House, 1871, p. 127.

 

                        All Glory to God

"In its teaching on the immutability, unchangeableness, and

permanency of the means of grace, the Lutheran Church gives all

glory to God alone because it teaches that no one, not even a

minister of the Word, can change the means of grace from that which

God instituted."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"

The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1946, II,  p. 333.

 

"It is God alone who may speak the word of pardon, who can produce

faith, but it is God who is speaking in the Gospel and the

Sacraments (Luke 24:47: 'in His name') and creating faith through

them (Acts 16:14--Lydia; James 1:18; I Thessalonians 2:13).  The

word of the Gospel is therefore not a dead letter, nor are the

Sacraments empty symbols, but they are the power of God.  The power

of God is inseparably connected with, is inherent in, the means of

grace."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"

The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1946, II,  p. 335.  Luke 24:47; Acts 16

 

                       Holiness of Church

"The church is recognized, not by external peace but by the Word

and the Sacraments.  For wherever you see a small group that has

the true Word and the Sacraments, there the church is if only the

pulpit and the baptismal font are pure.  The church does not stand

on the holiness of any one person but solely on the holiness and

righteousness of the Lord Christ, for He has sanctified her by

Word and Sacrament."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols.,

ed., Ewald Plass, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1959, I,  p. 263.  Matthew 24:4-7

 

"From this it follows that they act foolishly, yea, against God's

order and institution, who despise and reject the external Word,

thinking that the Holy Spirit and faith should come to them without

means.  It will indeed be a long time before that happens."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II,  p. 915.

 

                           Foul Errors

"For we can definitely assert that where the Lord's Supper,

Baptism, and the Word are found, Christ, the remission of sins, and

life eternal are found.  On the other hand, where these signs of

grace are not found, or where they are despised by men, not only

grace is lacking but also foul errors will follow.  Then men will

set up other forms of worship and other signs for themselves."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II,  p. 914.

Genesis 4:3

 

                    God Asked No One's Advice

"In reconciling the world unto Himself by Christ's substitutionary

satisfaction, God asked no one's advice concerning His singular

method of reconciliation.  In like manner, without asking any man's

advice, He ordained the means by which He gives men the infallible

assurance of His gracious will toward them; in other words, He both

confers on men the remission of sins merited by Christ and works

faith in the proffered remission or, where faith already exists,

strengthens it.  The Church has appropriately called these

divine ordinances the means of grace, media gratiae, instrumenta

gratiae; Formula of Concord:  'Instrumenta sive media Spiritus

Sancti' (Triglotta, p. 903, Solid Declaration, II, 58).  They are

the Word of the Gospel, Baptism, and the Lord's Supper, as will be

shown more fully on the following pages."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 103.

 

"It is also taught among us that man possesses some measure of

freedom of the will which enables him to live an outwardly

honorable life and to make choices among the things that reason

comprehends.  But without the grace, help, and activity of the Holy

Spirit man is not capable of making himself acceptable to God, of

fearing God and believing in God with his whole heart, or of

expelling inborn evil lusts from his heart.  This is accomplished

by the Holy Spirit, who is given through the Word of God, for Paul

says in 1 Corinthians 2:14, 'Natural man does not receive the gifts

of the Spirit of God.'" [cites Augustine, Hypognosticon contra

Palaginos]

Augsburg Confession, Article XVIII, Freedom of the Will,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1983, p. 39.  German trans.  1 Corinthians 2:14

 

                   Means of Grace and Victory

"Wherever the means of grace are present, there the Lord Himself is

present, and where the Lord rules there is victory.  The true

doctrine of justification is intimately bound up with the true

doctrine of the means of grace.  In order to keep the doctrine of

justification in all its purity, one must ever maintain that the

forgiveness of sins which Christ earned for mankind can never be

appropriated by man through any other means than the Word and the

Sacrament.  Therefore, Walther said, the correct doctrine on

justification stands or falls with the correct doctrine concerning

the means of grace."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace," The Abiding Word,

ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1946, II,  p. 327.  "peculiar glory" passage follows. See Conc Cyc.

 

                 Word Not a Lifeless Instrument

"We are not, then, in any way to represent to ourselves the

relation of the Word and the Spirit as though the Word were merely

the lifeless instrument which the Holy Ghost employed, or as

thought the Spirit, when he wished to operate through the Word,

must always first unite himself with it, as if he were

ordinarily separated from it."

Heinrich Schmid,

The Doctrinal Theology of the Ev. Luth. Church, Charles A. Hay,

Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  Lutheran Publication Society,

1889, p. 505.

 

 

 

                        Justification and the Means of Grace

"The starting point in presenting the doctrine of the means of

grace must be the universal objective reconciliation or

justification.  This is the procedure of Scripture."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 105.

 

"For Scripture never calls either Baptism or the Lord's Supper

mysteries or sacraments.  Therefore this is an unwritten (agraphos)

appellation."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer, St.

Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 29.

 

                  Anything Else - Of the Devil

"Accordingly, we should and must constantly maintain that God will

not deal with us except through his external Word and sacrament.

Whatever is attributed to the Spirit apart from such Word and

sacrament is of the devil."

Smalcald Articles, Part III, Article VIII, Confession,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,

Philadelphia:  Fortress Press, 1983, p. 313.

 

                    Law Not a Means of Grace

"The Law of God, which is also contained in Scripture, must be

excluded from the concept 'means of grace,' because the Law does

not assure those who have transgressed it--and all men have

transgressed it--of the remission of their sins, or God's grace,

but on the contrary proclaims God's wrath and condemnation.  For

this reason the Law is expressly called...'the ministry of

condemnation,' whereas the Gospel is...'the ministry of

righteousness' (2 Cor. 3:9)."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 105.

2 Corinthians 3:9

 

                          Opinio Legis

"Native to us is the opinio legis, the religion of the Law.  When

we observe virtue in ourselves, we regard God as gracious.  When we

discover sin in us and our conscience condemns us because of it, we

fear that God is minded to reject us."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 131.

 

                  Practical Need of Christians

"Also the objection that there is no need of offering and

confirming to Christians one and the same forgiveness of sins in

several ways betrays an astonishing ignorance.  Both Scripture and

experience teach that men who feel the weight of their sins find

nothing harder to believe than the forgiveness of their sins.

Hence repetition of the assurance of the forgiveness of sins in

various ways through the means of grace meets a practical need of

Christians."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht, St.

Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 114.

 

                       Holiness of Church

"The church is recognized, not by external peace but by the Word

and the Sacraments.  For wherever you see a small group that has

the true Word and the Sacraments, there the church is if only the

pulpit and the baptismal font are pure.  The church does not stand

on the holiness of any one person but solely on the holiness and

righteousness of the Lord Christ, for He has sanctified her by

Word and Sacrament."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols.,

ed., Ewald Plass, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1959, I,  p. 263.  Matthew 24:4-7

 

"From this it follows that they act foolishly, yea, against God's

order and institution, who despise and reject the external Word,

thinking that the Holy Spirit and faith should come to them without

means.  It will indeed be a long time before that happens."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II,  p. 915.

 

                           Foul Errors

"For we can definitely assert that where the Lord's Supper,

Baptism, and the Word are found, Christ, the remission of sins, and

life eternal are found.  On the other hand, where these signs of

grace are not found, or where they are despised by men, not only

grace is lacking but also foul errors will follow.  Then men will

set up other forms of worship and other signs for themselves."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II,  p. 914.

Genesis 4:3

 

 

II.  False Doctrines about the Means of Grace

     A.  Rome

                     Rome and Infant Baptism

"Catholic teaching stresses that the faith of the Church supplies

for the child until it is able to make an act of faith on its own."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols.,

San Francisco:  Ignatius Press, 1982, I,  p. 112.

 

"When we say that we acknowledge one Baptism we are giving

affirmation to the infallible teaching of the Church that valid

Baptism imprints on the soul of the recipient an indelible

spiritual mark--called the baptismal 'character'--and

thus cannot be repeated...Thus, Christians validly baptized in an

Orthodox or Protestant church, when they convert to Catholicism,

are not to be rebaptized."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1982, I,  p. 112.

 

                         Rome and Limbo

"Limbo is defined as 'the place or state of infants dying without

the Sacrament of Baptism who suffer the pain of loss but not the

pain of sense.'  It may come to you as a surprise to learn that the

Church does not affirm the existence of limbo.  Its existence is a

postulate of theologians.  The last time limbo was mentioned in a

papal document was by Pius VI in 1794.  In that bull he did not

teach the existence of limbo, but rejected the arguments of the

Jansenists against it."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1982, II,  p. 173.

 

"The question of limbo is still an unsettled question in Catholic

theology.  The Church does not officially endorse the existence of

limbo."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1982, II,  p. 174.

 

                          Gratia Infusa

"But Rome would have us believe that the grace won by Christ moves

God to infuse into man so much grace (gratia infusa), that is,

sanctification and good works--and this, let it be noted, with

man's constant co-operation (Trent, Session VI, canon 4) that he is

enabled truly to merit (vere mereri, Trent, Session VI, canon 32)

justification and salvation, either de congruo (according to

fairness or liberality) or de condigno (by actual merit).

According to Rome, Christ has merited only enough grace to enable

men to merit salvation for themselves."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 117.

 

"In other words, according to Roman Catholic doctrine, Christ has

secured for sinners so much grace that they, by divine gracious

assistance (infusion of divine powers), can earn salvation

themselves."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace," The Abiding Word,

ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1946, II,  p. 336.

 

                     Papistic Media Gratiae

"Therefore the media gratiae in the papistic sense are not means

through which God offers to faith the complete forgiveness of sins

and the salvation merited by Christ, and through that offer also

works faith in man or strengthens the faith already present, but

they are means to incite and aid him to such virtuous endeavors,

under Roman direction, as can gradually and in constantly

increasing measure (Trent, Session VI, chapter 16, canon 32) win

God's grace for him."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 117.

 

              Catholic Church Existed before Bible

"The Catholic Church existed before the Bible; it is possible for

the Catholic Church to exist without the Bible, for the Catholic

Church is altogether independent of the Bible.  The Bible does not

give any systematic, complete, and exhaustive treatment of the

doctrine of Christ.  In many respects it is, like a stenographer's

notebook, partial and fragmentary, to be supplemented later on in

more elaborate detail by other agencies.  Christ never wrote a word

of the Bible.  One might naturally expect Him to have set the

example by writing at least some portions of the Bible as if He

intended His followers to take their entire religion from it."

(Thomas F. Coakley, Inside Facts about the Catholic Church,

Catholic Truth Society, p. 21f.

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"

The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1946, II,  p. 338.

 

                        Ex opere operato

"They [our opponents, the Romanists] imagine that the sacraments

bestow the Holy Spirit ex opere operato without the proper attitude

in the recipient, as though the gift of the Holy Spirit were a

minor matter."

Augsburg Confession, Article IV, Justification,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,

Philadelphia:  Fortress Press, 1983, p. 115.

 

The Papal Mass

 

                       Transubstantiation

"Transubstantiation is also one of the pillars that support the

papalist kingdom...Rather, it is that they may retain and establish

the sacrifice of the Mass, reservation, carrying about, adoration

of the bread, and all the things which, outside of the divinely

instituted use, have been joined to these things--for this reason

they fight so persistently about transubstantiation."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 253.

 

                         Mass Theatrics

"They imagine that by means of these actions, motions, gestures,

and ceremonies, with certain words added about sacrifice, oblation,

and victim, they are sacrificing and offering the body and blood of

Christ, yes, Christ, the Son of God Himself, anew to God the Father

through such a theatrical representation (which is either a comedy

or a tragedy) of Christ's passion."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 446.

 

                    Perversions of the Mass

"That it lacks true, firm, and solid grounds in Scripture is,

however, not the only thing we criticize in the papalist Mass; what

we complain about most of all is that it is an abomination,

conflicting with the doctrine of the Word, the sacraments, and

faith--yes, that it is full of abuse against the unique sacrifice

of Christ and against His perpetual priesthood, as this has

been demonstrated at length by the men on our side in fair and

honest writings."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 493.

 

                       Mass for the Dead

"In addition there is this perversion, that whereas Christ

instituted the use of His Supper for all who receive it, who take,

eat, and drink, the papalist Mass transfers the use and benefit of

the celebration of the Lord's Supper in our time to the onlookers,

who do not communicate, yes, to those who are absent, and even to

the dead."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 498.

 

"If anyone says that the canon of the Mass contains errors and

should therefore be abrogated, let him be anathema."  [Chapter IV,

Canon VI]  Chemnitz:  "The power, yes, the substance and as it were

the soul of the papalist sacrifice is the canon of the Mass.

Therefore they labor much more for its retention than about the

canon of Scripture itself, which they are not afraid to corrupt by

mixing in other, noncanonical books."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 508.

 

                       Mass as Sacrifice

"And since in this divine sacrifice, which is accomplished in the

Mass, that same Christ is contained and bloodlessly sacrificed who

once, on the altar of the cross, offered Himself a bloody

sacrifice, the holy synod teaches that this sacrifice is truly

propitiatory and that through it comes to pass that, if we approach

God with a true heart and right faith, with fear and reverence,

contrite and penitent, we obtain mercy and find grace in timely

help."  [Sixth Session, Chapter II]

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 440.

 

"The Mass is a re-presentation now, in an unbloody manner, of the

bloody sacrifice of the Cross over nineteen hundred years ago.

Since it is a re-offering of Jesus on Calvary, the Mass is rightly

referred to as 'the holy Sacrifice of the Mass,' although we do not

hear this expression much today."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1982, I,  p. 142f.

 

"As often as the sacrifice of the cross in which 'Christ, our

passover, has been sacrificed' (1 Cor. 5:7) is celebrated on an

altar, the work of our redemption is carried on."

Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution of the Church, I, 3,

The Documents of Vatican II,

Walter M. Abbott, S.J., New York:  Herder and Herder,

1966, p. 16.  1 Corinthians 5:7

 

"Taking part in the Eucharistic Sacrifice, which is the fount and

apex of the whole Christian life, they offer the divine Victim to

God, and offer themselves along with It."

Lumen Gentium, Dogmatic Constitution of the Church, I, 11,

The Documents of Vatican II, Walter M. Abbott, S.J.,

New York:  Herder and Herder, 1966, p. 28.

 

"The Eucharistic sacrifice is also offered for the faithful

departed who have died in Christ but are not yet wholly purified.,

so that may be able to enter into the light and peace of Christ..."

[Council of Trent, 1562:  DS 1743]

(#1371)

Liberia Editrice Vaticana,

Catechism of the Catholic Church, St. Paul Books and Media,

1994, p. 345.

 

"'In this divine sacrifice which is celebrated in the Mass, the

same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the

altar of the cross is contained and is offered in an unbloody

manner.' [Council of Trent, 1562: DS

1743; cf Heb. 9:14, 27."

Liberia Editrice Vaticana,

Catechism of the Catholic Church, St. Paul Books and Media,

1994, p. 344.  Hebrews 9:14

 

"To institute a form of worship beside and without the Word of God,

and indeed one to which is ascribed propitiation for sins,

appeasement of the wrath of God, is a vain thing; it cannot please

God; yes, it is idolatry.  For 'in vain they worship Me with

doctrines and commandments of men.'  Likewise:  'Without faith it

is impossible that a thing should please God.'  Faith, however,

'comes by hearing, and hearing by the revealed Word of God.'"

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 493.

 

"The papalist Mass, as we have described it in the beginning,

militates against the one propitiatory sacrifice of Christ in many

ways and is an affront to it.  For there is only one propitiatory

sacrifice that expiates and renders satisfaction for sins--the

offering of Christ made on the cross (Hebrews 7:27; 9:12, 26;

10:12)."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 494.

 

"For a sacrifice, according to Augustine, Contra adversarium legis

et prophetarum, Bk. 1, and De civitate Dei, Bk. 10, is a work which

we offer, render, and dedicate to God in order that we may dwell in

Him in holy fellowship.  A sacrament, however, is a holy sign

through which God freely offers, conveys, applies, and seals His

gratuitous benefits to us.  It is therefore an extraordinary

perversion of the Lord's Supper to make a sacrifice out of a

sacrament, in the way the papalists speak of the sacrifice of their

Mass, namely, that the representatory action of the priest procures

for us the application of the benefits of Christ and that anyone

who causes a Mass to be celebrated in his behalf by this work

procures grace and whatever other things are ascribed to the Mass."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer, St.

Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 498.

 

                  Mass as Sacrifice Condemned

"At the same time the abominable error was condemned according to

which it was taught that our Lord Jesus Christ had by his death

made satisfaction only for original sin, and had instituted the

Mass as a sacrifice for other sins.  This transformed the Mass into

a sacrifice for the living and the dead, a sacrifice by means of

which sin was taken away and God was reconciled...the holy

sacrament was not instituted to make provision for a sacrifice for

sin--for the sacrifice has already take place--but to awaken our

faith and comfort our consciences when we perceive that through the

sacrament grace and forgiveness of sin are promised us by Christ."

Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1983, p. 58f.  German trans.

 

                       Mass and Purgatory

"Our opponents defend the application of the ceremony to free the

souls of the dead, from which they make infinite profits.  But for

this they have no scriptural proof or command.  It is no mere

peccadillo to establish such services in the church without the

command of God and the example of Scripture, and to apply to the

dead the Lord's Supper which was instituted for commemoration and

preaching among the living."

Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1983, p. 265f.

 

"Our opponents defend the application of the ceremony to free the

souls of the dead, from which they make infinite profits.  But for

this they have no scriptural proof or command.  It is no mere

peccadillo to establish such services in the church without the

command of God and the example of Scripture, and to apply to the

dead the Lord's Supper which was instituted for commemoration and

preaching among the living."

Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1983, p. 265f.

 

"At the same time the abominable error was condemned according to

which it was taught that our Lord Jesus Christ had by his death

made satisfaction only for original sin, and had instituted the

Mass as a sacrifice for other sins.  This transformed the Mass into

a sacrifice for the living and the dead, a sacrifice by means of

which sin was taken away and God was reconciled...the holy

sacrament was not instituted to make provision for a sacrifice for

sin--for the sacrifice has already take place--but to awaken our

faith and comfort our consciences when we perceive that through the

sacrament grace and forgiveness of sin are promised us by Christ."

Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass,

The Book of Concord,

ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:  Fortress Press, 1983,

p. 58f.  German trans.

 

"Then when our [Evangelical] preachers preached about these things

and the priests were reminded of the terrible responsibility which

should properly concern every Christian (namely, that whoever uses

the sacrament unworthily is guilty of the body and blood of

Christ), such mercenary Masses and private Masses, which had

hitherto been held under compulsion for the sake of revenue

and stipends, were discontinued in our churches."  [Tappert calls

masses said for the special intention of individuals "Votive

Masses."]

Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV, The Mass, The Book of Concord,

ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:  Fortress Press,

1983, p. 57.  German trans.

 

                      The Effective Mass 

"The most excellent and most efficacious of all the suffrages for

the dead, is the Holy Mass...It is certain that every soul in

Purgatory receives some diminution of its debt by the celebration

of any Mass, even though we cannot measure that diminution

precisely.  This is very consoling for us all."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1959, p. 96.

 

"It is 'de fide' that we can help the souls in Purgatory by our

prayers and our works, by the Mass and by Indulgences."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1950, p. 59.

381 Fourth Ave, NY 16, NY

 

"In approving of Masses in Perpetuity for the dead, the Church

approves of such constant remembrance.  In this, she shows herself

in disagreement with that strange opinion of P. Dominic Soto, who

played an important part in the Council of Trent.  This theologian

affirms that the sufferings of Purgatory are so terrible and the

suffrages of the Church so efficacious, that a soul, no matter what

its debt, cannot remain there more than ten years.  That would be

to give the lie to many private revelations."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1950, p. 56f.

 

"Since the coming of Christ, even those souls who come to Purgatory

in schism, in heresy, in infidelity, have a share in the fruit of

the Masses celebrated in the whole universe, in the numerous

suffrages offered by the Church militant."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1950, p. 37.

 

"When a stipend is offered for a Mass to be celebrated for a

particular intention, the priest must offer that Mass as a first

intention.  The practice of offering Mass for definite persons can

be traced back to the third century.  Thirdly, it is commonly held

by theologians that there is a personal fruit of the Mass which the

Lord grants to the celebrating priest and to all the faithful

who are actually present at each Mass."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vol., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1983, III,  p. 273.

 

[13th century, after scholastic support of Purgatory]  "In any

case, the Church, in the ecclesiastical, clerical sense, drew

considerable power from the new system of the hereafter.  It

administered or supervised prayers, alms, masses, and offerings of

all kinds made by the living on behalf of the dead and reaped the

benefits thereof.  Thanks to Purgatory the Church developed the

system of indulgences, a source of great power and profit until it

became a dangerous weapon that was ultimately turned back against

the Church."

Jacques Le Goff,

The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 249.

 

"Communion with the dead.  'In full consciousness of this communion

of the whole Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, the Church in its

pilgrim members, from the very earliest days of the Christian

religion, has honored with great respect the memory of the dead;

and because it is a holy and a wholesome thought to pray for the

dead that they may be loosed from their sins she offers her

suffrages for them.' [footnote #496:  Documents of Vatican II,

Lumen Gentium, 50; cf 2 Macc 12:45]  Our prayer for them is capable

not only of helping them, but also of making their intercession for

us effective." (#958)

Liberia Editrice Vaticana,

Catechism of the Catholic Church, St. Paul Books and Media,

1994, p. 250.  2 Maccabees 12:45

 

"A priest is more than one who 'ministers' to others by proclaiming

to them God's Word, by teaching them and by leading them in prayer.

That is the Protestant idea of a minister.  The Catholic idea of

the priesthood includes all that, but also adds the reality and

function of 'sacrifice'...Mediation between God and mankind is a

two-way street.  The priests offers gifts and sacrifices to

God on behalf of mankind; he also brings gifts and blessings from

God back to the human family."

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vols., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1982, II,  p. 287.

 

                  Augustine and Purgatory Help

"Since this is so, we should not think that any aid comes to the

dead for whom we are providing care, except what we solemnly pray

for in their behalf at the altars, either by sacrifices of prayers

or of alms...It is better that there be a superabundance of aids

for those to whom these works are neither a hindrance nor a help,

than that there be a lack for those who are thus aided."

Augustine, On the Care to Be Given to the Dead, conclusion

Jacques Le Goff,

The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Chicago:

University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 82.

                              Vatican II and Purgatory

"If those who are truly penitent die in charity before they have

done sufficient penance for their sins of omission or commission,

their souls are cleansed after death in purgatorial or cleansing

punishments....The suffrages of the faithful on earth can be of

great help in relieving these punishments, as for instance, the

Sacrifice of the Mass, prayers, almsgiving and other religious

deeds..."  [Florence, 127; confirmed by Vatican II]

Kenneth Baker, S.J.,

Fundamentals of Catholicism, 3 vol., San Francisco:  Ignatius

Press, 1983, III,  p. 156.  Denzinger 464; Vatican II Consti. Ch.,

no. 51

 

                 Council of Trent and Purgatory

"The Council of Trent (1563) in reaction to the Reformers

reaffirmed the Church's teaching on Purgatory, on the value of

prayers for the dead and especially of the Sacrifice of the Mass.

Again and again the Church has restated this doctrine down to our

own time.  It is clearly taught in the Second Vatican Council, and

more recently The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

defended the practice of prayers, funeral rites and veneration of

the dead."

Kilian Healy, O.Carm.,

The Assumption of Mary, Wilmington, Delaware:  Michael Glazier,

1982, p. 127.

 

                Comforting Thoughts of Purgatory

"We read in the Life of St. Elizabeth of Portugal that after the

death of her daughter Constance she learned the pitiful state of

the deceased in Purgatory and the price which God exacted for her

ransom...that she was condemned to long and terrible suffering, but

that she would be delivered if for the space of a year the Holy

Sacrifice of the Mass was celebrated for her every day."

Rev. F. X. Schouppe, S.J.,

Purgatory, Illustrated by the Lives and Legends of the Saints,

Rockford:  Tan Books, 1973, p. 158.

 

                        Money for Masses

"To set aside a part of one's fortune for the celebration of Masses

for the souls in Purgatory, either in perpetuity or for a

considerable time, is to exercise the Apostolate of Purgatory even

after death."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1959, p. 198.

 

"In approving of Masses in Perpetuity for the dead, the Church

approves of such constant remembrance.  In this, she shows herself

in disagreement with that strange opinion of P. Dominic Soto, who

played an important part in the Council of Trent.  This theologian

affirms that the sufferings of Purgatory are so terrible and the

suffrages of the Church so efficacious, that a soul, no matter what

its debt, cannot remain there more than ten years.  That would be

to give the lie to many private revelations."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1950, p. 56f.  381 Fourth Ave, NY 16, NY

 

"There is another manner of augmenting the efficacy of the Mass for

the help and deliverance of the souls.  It is to assist at the

Mass, and united oneself therewith, to pray fervently for the

dead."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1959, p. 98.

 

"These stipends are in no sense the price of the Mass; to think so

would be simoniacal and mercenary.  The stipend is an alms made to

the Church in the person of her minister, for his support and for

the expenses incurred."

Martin Jugie,

Purgatory and the Means to Avoid It, New York:  Spiritual Book

Associates, 1959, p. 97.

 

                      Mary as Co-Redeemer

"The Church imitates Mary's burning charity and unshakable faith in

offering Jesus at the sacrifice of the Mass...On the hill of

Calvary, Mary first offered in perfect faith her Son to God the

Father as she stood beneath the cross.  We, too, like Mary, should

offer the sacrifice of Jesus at every Mass.  Every time Mass is

offered Mary still makes the same offering from heaven."

Father Robert J. Fox,

The Marian Catechism, Washington, New Jersey:  AMI Press,

1983, p. 68-70.

 

B.  Enthusiasm

                         Means of Grace

"The Christian doctrine of the means of grace is abolished by all

'enthusiasts,' all who assume a revealing and effective operation

of the Holy Spirit without and alongside the divinely ordained

means of grace."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 127.

 

"For the devil at all times assaults the grace of God; no heresy

can bear the teaching of divine grace."

Martin Luther (on Deut 4:24; St. L. III, 1691 ff.)

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 160.

 

                              Revivalism and Enthusiasm

"The crudest extravagances of revivalism (Methodism,

Pentecostalism, Holy Rollerism) have their root in this

specifically Reformed doctrine of the immediate working of the Holy

Spirit."  [Fuller Seminary is known for its Pentecostal extremism,

including C. Peter Wagner's "Signs and Wonders" course.]

"Grace, Means of,"

The Concordia Cyclopedia, L. Fuerbringer, Th. Engelder, P. E.

Kretzmann, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1927,

p. 299.

 

"A denial of the efficacy and sufficiency of the means of grace is

contained in the theological systems of all religious enthusiasts."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"

The Abiding Word,

ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1946, II,  p. 343.

 

"The Lutheran theologians, in general, had reason to illustrate

very particularly the doctrine of the operation of the Word of God,

in order to oppose the Enthusiasts and Mystics, who held that the

Holy Spirit operated rather irrespectively of the Word than through

it; and to oppose also the Calvinists, who, led by their doctrine

of predestination, would not grant that the Word possessed this

power per se, but only in such cases where God chose...."

Heinrich Schmid,

The Doctrinal Theology of the Ev. Luth. Church, Charles A. Hay,

Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  Lutheran Publication Society,

1889, p. 511.

 

"The Lutheran Confessions take a decisive stand against

'enthusiasts,'who teach that the Holy Spirit works in the hearts of

men without the Word and Sacraments (SA-III VIII 3-13; LC II 34-62;

FC Ep II 13)."

John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of," Lutheran Cyclopedia,

Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1975, p. 344.

 

"Likewise, we reject and condemn the error of the Enthusiasts who

imagine that God draws men to himself, enlightens them, justifies

them, and saves them without means, without the hearing of God's

Word and without the use of the holy sacraments."  [Tappert - "A

marginal note at this point reads: 'Enthusiasts is the term for

people who expect the Spirit's heavenly illumination without the

preaching of God's Word.'"]

Formula of Concord, Epitome, Article II, Free Will,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1983, p. 471.

 

"It is indeed correct and true what Scripture states, that no one

comes to Christ unless the Father draw him. [John 6:44]  But the

Father will not do this without means, and he has ordained Word and

sacraments as the ordinary means or instruments to accomplish this

end.  It is not the will of either the Father or the Son that any

one should refuse to hear or should despise the preaching of his

Word and should wait for the Father to draw him without Word

and sacraments." [See SD, II, 4, 80]

Solid Declaration, Article XI, Election,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 628f.

 

 

C.  Calvin and Zwingli

 

                      Reformed Rationalism

"Behind the Reformed teaching of the means of grace looms the

rationalistic thought, foreign to Scripture, that divine

omnipotence, which is needed to bring about faith and regeneration,

cannot be exercised through means."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 147.

 

                 Young Calvinist, Old Unitarian

"...it is exceedingly difficult to prevent this low view from

running out into Socinianism, as, indeed, it actually has run in

Calvinistic lands, so that it became a proverb, often met with in

the older theological writers--'A young Calvinist, an old

Socinian.'  This peril is confessed and mourned over by great

Calvinistic divines.  New England is an illustration of it on an

immense scale, in our own land."

Charles P. Krauth,

The Conservative Reformation and Its Theology, Philadelphia:  The

United Lutheran Publication House, 1871, p. 489.

 

                   Rejection of the Sacraments

"They separate grace from Baptism and leave us a mere external

sign, in which there is not a grain of mercy; all grace has been

cut away.  Now, if the grace of Christ has been removed from

Baptism, there remains nothing but a mere work.  Likewise, in the

Sacrament of the Lord's Supper the fanatics remove the promise

offered us in this Sacrament; they tell us that what we eat and

drink is nothing but bread and wine.  Here, too, the proffered

grace is cut away and renounced.  For they teach us that the only

good work that we do by communing is professing Christ; as to the

rest, we merely eat and drink bread and wine in the Supper, and

there is no grace in it for us.  That is the result of falling away

from the First Commandment:  a person promptly sets up an idol in

the form of some meritorious work, in which he trusts."  (Luther,

on Deut. 4:28; St. L. III, 1691 ff.)

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 160.

Deuteronomy 4:28

 

                    Denial of Real Presence

"Whoever denies the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ

in the Lord's Supper must pervert the words of Institution where

Christ the Lord, speaking of that which He gives His Christians to

eat, says:  'This is My body,' and, speaking of that which He gives

them to drink, says: 'This is My blood.'  [Also 1 Cor. 10:16]

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 40.  1 Corinthians 10:16

 

                       Rejection Condemned

"On the other side, we unanimously reject and condemn all the

following errors... 6.  That bread and wine in the Holy Supper are

no more than tokens whereby Christians recognize one another.

[Tappert note - Zwingli, De vera et falsa religione, Opera, III,

145ff.]  7.  That the bread and wine are only figures, images, and

types of the far-distant body and blood of Christ.  8.  That the

bread and wine are no more than reminders, seals, and pledges to

assure us that when our faith ascends into heaven, it there

partakes of the body and blood of Christ as truly as we eat and

drink bread and wine in the Supper."

[Tappert note - View of Calvin on 1 Cor. 11:23, C. R. 49:483]

Formula of Concord, Epitome, Article VII, The Lord's Supper,

The Book of Concord,

ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:  Fortress Press,

1983, p. 485.  1 Corinthians 11:23

 

                No Means of Grace for Calvinists

"Because saving grace is particular, according to the teaching of

the Calvinists, there are no means of grace for that part of

mankind to which the grace of God and the merit of Christ do not

extend.  On the contrary, for these people the means of grace are

intended as means of condemnation.  Calvin teaches expressly:  'For

there is a universal call, through which, by the external preaching

of the Word, God invites all, indiscriminately, to come to Him,

even those for whom He intends it as a savor of death and an

occasion of heavier condemnation' (Institutes, III, 24, 8)."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 118f.

 

"But according to the teaching of Calvinism this 'inner

illumination' is not brought about through the means of grace; it

is worked immediately by the Holy Ghost.  Modern Reformed, too,

teach this very emphatically.  Hodge, for example, says:  'In the

work of regeneration all second causes are excluded....Nothing

intervenes between the volition of the Spirit and the regeneration

of the soul....The infusion of a new life into the soul is the

immediate work of the Spirit....The truth (in the case of

adults)[that is, the setting forth of the truth of the Gospel

through the external Word] attends the work of regeneration, but is

not the means by which it is effected."  [Hodge, Systematic

Theology, II, 634f.]

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 120.

 

"Reformed theologians, in order to support their denial of the

illocalis modus subsistendi of Christ's human nature, have sought,

in their exposition of John 20, an opening in the closed doors, or

a window, or an aperture in the roof or in the walls, in order to

explain the possibility of Christ's appearance in the room where

the disciples were assembled."

Francis Pieper

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1950, II,  p. 127.

See also I, 25ff., III, 324  John 20:19

 

"Die Ansicht der Kalvinisten von dem nichts wirkenden Wort der

Absolution ist ganz gemaess ihrer Grundansicht vom Wort ueberhaupt,

nach welcher es nichts als blosse Darstellung und Lehre ist und an

sich selbst unwirksam."

Adolf Hoenecke:

Evangelische Lutherische Dogmatik, 4 vol., ed., Walter and Otto

Hoenecke, Milwaukee:  Northwestern Publishing House, 1909,

IV,  p. 199.

 

"Thus Calvin, as we saw, cautions against seeking to discern one's

election from the universal call, that is, from the Word of the

Gospel (Institutes, III, 24, 8).  Likewise the Consensus Tigurinus

(c. 20) warns against the thought that the 'visible sign [the

Sacraments], in the same moment when it is being offered, brings

with it the grace of God' (Niemeyer, p. 195).  The Geneva

Catechism, too, enjoins ['De Sacramentis'], that salvation must not

be sought in the visible signs."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 145.

 

                  Calvin Confused about Gospel

"Let the threatenings of the gospel terrify us, and humble us in

time..."

John Calvin, Commentaries, Acts 5:5, CO XLVIII, 99.

Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,

Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 93n.

 

                   Word Separate from Spirit

"The word of God is not set before all men that they return to

soundness of mind; but the external voice sounds in the ears of

many, without the effectual working of the Spirit, only that they

may be made inexcusable."

John Calvin, Commentaries, Acts 28:26; CO XLVIII, 571,

Benjamin Milner,Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,

Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 93n.

 

"I grant that doctrines ought to be tested by God's word; but

unless the Spirit of wisdom (spiritus prudentiae) is present, to

have God's word in our hands will avail little or nothing, for its

meaning will not appear to us...."

John Calvin, Commentaries, 1 Jn 4:1; CO LV, 347-48.

Benjamin Milner,Calvin's Doctrine of the Church,

Heicko A.Oberman, Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 105.

 

"Though he withheld at that time the words of his mouth, yet he

spoke within to the mind of the woman, and so this secret instinct

(arcanum hunc instinctum) was a substitute for the outward

preaching."

John Calvin, Commentaries, Mt 15:23; CO XLV, 457.

Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,

Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 108.

 

"He also convinced them without the word, for we know how powerful

are the secret instincts of the Spirit (arcani spiritus

instinctus)."

John Calvin, Commentaries, Amos 4:12; CO XLIII, 68.

Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church,

Heicko A.Oberman, Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 108n.

 

"...we are touched with some desire for strong doctrine, it

evidently appears that there is some piety in us; we are not

destitute of the Spirit of God, although destitute of the outward

means."

John Calvin, Commentaries, Amos 8:11-12; CO XLIII, 153.

Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church,

Heicko A.Oberman, Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 109.

 

"If the Spirit be lacking, the sacraments can accomplish nothing

more in our minds than the splendor of the sun shining upon blind

eyes, or a voice sounding in deaf ears."

John Calvin, Institutes, IV, xiv, 9,             

Benjamin Milner, Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Heicko A.Oberman,

Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970, p. 119.

 

                           Sacraments

"The Sacraments are not mere symbolic expressions by which faith is

strengthened (Calvin), nor are they mere acts of confession of

faith (notae professionis, Zwingli), but are effective means by

which God sows faith in the hearts of men."

Walter G. Tillmanns, "Means of Grace: Use of,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol.,

Julius Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House,

1965, II,  p. 1506.

 

"But the sacraments properly fulfill their office only when the

Spirit, that inward teacher, comes to them, by whose power alone

hearts are penetrated and affections moved and our souls opened for

the sacraments to enter in. If the Spirit be lacking, the

sacraments can accomplish nothing more in our minds than

the splendor of the sun shining upon blind eyes, or a voice

sounding in deaf ears."

Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,

Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden:  E. J. Brill,

1970, p. 119. Insti. IV.xiv.9

 

                 Calvin and the Means of Grace

"Wherever we see the Word of God purely preached and heard, and the

sacraments administered according to Christ's institution, there,

it is not to be doubted, a church of God exists."

Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,

Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden:  E. J. Brill,

1970, p. 100. Insti. IV.i.9

 

"Calvinism rejects the means of grace as unnecessary; it holds that

the Holy Spirit requires no escort or vehicle by which to enter

human hearts."

John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of,"

Lutheran Cyclopedia, Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1975, p. 344.

 

"The Lutheran Church Faces the World by Clinging to the Means of

Grace.  The doctrine of the means of grace is truly a most timely

subject.  For just in these last times, according to divine

revelation, there will be at work many spiritual brigands who will

perpetrate the grossest kind of deception."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace," The Abiding Word,

ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House,

1946, II,  p. 322.

 

                       Calvin and Baptism

"Baptism seals to us the salvation obtained by Christ."

Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,

Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970,

p. 116.  Titus 3:5

 

"The nature of baptism or the Supper must not be tied down to an

instant of time.  God, whenever He sees fit, fulfills and exhibits

in immediate effect that which he figures in the sacrament.  But no

necessity must be imagined so as to prevent His grace from

sometimes preceding, sometimes following, the use of the sign."

Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,

Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970,

p. 121.  Against Joachim Westphal

 

"Therefore, a part of revelation consists in baptism, that is, so

far as it is intended to confirm our faith."

Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,

Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden:  E. J. Brill, 1970,

p. 116. Titus 3:5

 

              Calvin Piously Denies Real Presence

"We must establish such a presence of Christ in the supper as may

neither fasten Him to the element of bread, not enclose Him in

bread, not circumscribe Him in any way (all of which clearly

derogate from His heavenly glory)...."

Benjamin Charles Milner, Jr.,

Calvin's Doctrine of the Church, Leiden:  E. J. Brill,

1970, p. 128.  Insti.IV.xvii.19

 

                       Calvin and Zwingli

"In fact, there is no basis for a real disagreement between Zwingli

and Calvin.  The situation here is analogous to the one that

obtains in the doctrine of Christ's Person and Word and the

doctrine of the Lord's Supper.  In these doctrines Zwingli and

Calvin and all Reformed will agree as long as they all

teach that Christ's body can possess only a local and visible mode

of subsistence or presence.  Similarly, Zwingli and Calvin cannot

differ materially in their teaching on the means of grace because

they agree, first, that Christ's merit and saving grace do not

apply to all who use the means of grace; secondly, that saving

grace is not bound to the means of grace."

Francis Pieper

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III,  p. 163.

 

"Whoever does not make conversion and salvation dependent solely on

the grace of God, but also on the conduct of man, he must actually

cross out hundreds of Bible passages."

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 40.  1 Peter 1:5

 

Analysis of Valleskey's defense of CG in the WLQ.

Gregory L. Jackson, "Figs From Thistles," Steve Spencer, ed.,

Orthodox Lutheran Forum, September 27, 1991.

 

"Calvin was dissatisfied with Zwingli's interpretation of the

Lord's Supper, but his own interpretation was also wrong.  He said

that a person desiring to receive the body and blood of Christ

could not get it under the bread and wine, but must by his faith

mount up to heaven, where the Holy Spirit would negotiate a way for

feeding him with the body and blood of Christ.  These are mere

vagaries, which originated in Calvin's fancy.  But an incident

like this shows that men will not believe that God bears us poor

sinners such great love that He is willing to come to us."

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 185.

 

"Furthermore, consider this:  All doctrines of the Bible are

connected with one another; they form a unit.  One error draws

others in after it.  Zwingli's first error was the denial of the

presence of Christ's body and blood in the Lord's Supper.  In order

to support this error, he had to invent a false doctrine of

Christ's Person, of heaven, of the right hand of God, etc."

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 41.

 

                   Nine Lies to Defend One Lie

"Thus in heterodox churches, in order to defend false doctrine,

God's Word must continually be denied.  It is rightly said:  'It

cost nine lies to maintain one lie.'  Whoever allows himself such

liberties with the Word of God, let him beware, lest the devil also

make this clear Word doubtful for him in the hour of death:  'The

blood of Jesus Christ, His Son, cleanseth us from all sin.'

1 John 1:7"

Francis Pieper, The Difference between Orthodox and

Heterodox Churches, and Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's

Lutheran Church, 1981, p. 40.  1 John 1:7

 

                    Zwingli: Bold and Vulgar

"I believe, yea, I know, that all the Sacraments are so far from

conferring grace that they do not even convey or distribute it.  In

this, most powerful Emperor, I may perhaps appear too bold to thee.

But I am firmly convinced that I am right."

Francis Pieper

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III,  p. 132f.

Fidei Ratio, ed. Niemeyer, p. 24;

 

"Zwingli is a good example of those who separate grace from the

means of grace.  His assertion that the Holy Ghost needs no vehicle

(vehiculum) is well known.  And this rule he applies not only to

the Sacraments but to the Word of the Gospel as well."

Francis Pieper

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III,  p. 127.

Fidei Ratio, ed. Niemeyer, p. 24;

 

"In what vulgar terms does Zwingli here speak of these sacred

matters!  When the Holy Spirit wants to approach man, He does not

need the Word of God, the Gospel, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, for

a conveyance; He can come without them!  It must be a queer Bible

which Zwingli read."

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 156.

 

"In other words, Zwingli and his numerous adherents declare that

the means God has ordained are unnecessary and hinder true piety."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 104.

 

"Church.  An assembly of professed believers under the discipline

of the Word of God, organized to carry out the Great Commission,

administer the ordinances, and minister with spiritual gifts."

C. Peter Wagner, ed., with Win Arn and Elmer Towns,

Church Growth:  The State of the Art, Wheaton:  Tyndale House,

1986, p. 283f.

 

                          The Reformed

 

"Observe, then, the depreciative, contemptuous, and scorning ring

in the words of the Reformed when they speak of the sacred Means of

Grace, the Word and the Sacraments, and the grand majestic ring in

the words of the Lord and the apostles when they speak of these

matters...The true reason for the Reformed view is this:  They do

not know how a person is to come into possession of the divine

grace, the forgiveness of sin, righteousness in the sight of God,

and eternal salvation.  Spurning the way which God has appointed,

they are pointing another way, in accordance with new devices which

they have invented."

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 152f.

 

"Die reformierte Unterscheidung zwischen der aeusseren

Sakramentshandlung und der unsichtbaren Handlung des Heiligen

Geistes ist die alte Trennung von Geist und Gnadenmittel."

Adolf Hoenecke:

Evangelische Lutherische Dogmatik, 4 vol., ed., Walter and Otto

Hoenecke, Milwaukee:  Northwestern Publishing House,

1909, IV,  p. 57.

 

                       Reformed Preaching

"Hence, too, the lack of emphasis, even in the best of Reformed

preaching, upon the divine Word as the vehicle of regenerating

grace and on the Sacraments.  The office of the Word, then, is

merely to point to the way of life, without communicating that of

which it conveys the idea.  The Word and Sacraments are declared to

be necessary; their office in the Church is a divine institution;

but they are only symbols of what the Spirit does within; and the

Spirit works immediately and irresistibly."

"Grace, Means of,"

The Concordia Cyclopedia, L. Fuerbringer, Th. Engelder, P. E.

Kretzmann, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1927,

p. 298.

 

"It is, for example, very terrible that the Lutheran Church,

because it has the true doctrine of Baptism and the Lord's Supper,

is decried as 'Catholic.'  This attack against the true Church is

no small matter."

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 44.

 

"Some time ago, a respected Presbyterian preacher in St. Louis

confessed that if he in his congregation would try to have God's

Word rule as it does with us, in four weeks his whole congregation

would scatter.  The sects owe their outward size mostly to this,

that they play church instead of actually conducting themselves as

God's Church.  Neither do they rightly bear witness of the Law of

God to man, nor do they act as true witnesses of God's grace.  But,

this is what the Lutheran Church does."

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 46.

 

                    Reformed Not Consistent

"Furthermore, the reminder is in place that the Reformed teachers

are not even consistent in what they teach regarding the means of

grace...But inasmuch as this inconsistency makes room for the

divine truth, the Holy Spirit is given the opportunity to perform

His work of kindling faith in the Gospel.  This circumstance

should, of course, not induce us to become indifferent to

the Reformed errors in the doctrine of the means of grace.  We are

confident that we have amply shown their unscripturalness and the

complete revolution they cause in the relation God has ordained

between Himself and men, because they do not place man on the Word

of grace and thus on Christ and God Himself, but direct man to take

his stand on himself and his own product.  Hence indifferentism

here is surely not in place."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 161f.

 

"Luther holds that all who deny that the Word and the Sacraments

dispense the forgiveness of sins, who therefore find it

particularly offensive if men remit sins, do not actually take

God's Word to be God's Word, but regard it as merely the word of

men.  See St. L. XIX:945; XIII:2441, etc."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 207.

 

                   Contempt for Means of Grace

"Another defect of Reformed preaching is its contempt for the Means

of Grace.  They will tell you that the Holy Spirit needs no

vehicle, neither ox-cart nor aeroplane, to enter the heart of man;

and by this rationalistic argument they think to have done away

with the Means of Grace.  But notice how they set about immediately

to construct their own Means of Grace.  Luther told them in his

day:'If the Holy Spirit needs no vehicle, no preaching, then why

are you here?  And why are you so earnest in spreading your errors?

It seems that what you really meant to say was that the Holy Spirit

does not need true prophets, but He is very much in need of false

prophets.' If the Holy Spirit needs no Means of Grace, who do these

Reformed churches undertake their campaigns of revivalism?"

Martin S. Sommer,

Concordia Pulpit for 1932, Martin S. Sommer, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1931, p. iv.

 

                        Spiritual Pride

"Another very repulsive concomitant of the Reformed false teaching

is spiritual pride.  Because those who harbor the conception of an

activity of the Holy Ghost apart from the means of grace are

dealing in an illusory, man-made quality, they regard themselves,

as experience amply proves, as the truly spiritual people and

first-class Christians, while they consider those who in simple

faith abide by the divinely appointed means of grace,

intellectualists,' having a mere Christianity of the head; at best,

second-rate Christians."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 162.

 

                  Prayer Not a Means of Grace

"The Christian's faith trusts in the ordinary means.  Prayer is not

a means of grace.  Means of grace are divine appointments through

which God uniformly offers blessings to all who use them.  Faith is

the means by which the blessings are received and appropriated.

God gives us bread, when we ask it, not through the channel of

prayer, but through the ordinary channels of His providence.  He

gives us grace when we ask it, not through prayer, but through the

ordinary means appointed for this end, namely the Word and

Sacraments.  He who despises these will as little have grace as he

who refuses to accept bread produced in the ordinary way of nature.

Faith asks with confidence, and trusts in the ordinary means of

God's appointment for the blessings asked."

Matthias Loy,

Sermons on the Gospels, Columbus:  Lutheran Book Concern,

1888, p. 387.

 

                 Reformed and the Means of Grace

"There is no Scripture proof for the Reformed teaching of the means

of grace."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 144.

 

"The Reformed are simply deluding themselves in claiming Scripture

support for their teaching regarding the means of grace.  Their

teaching is not derived from the Bible."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 150.

 

"Our opponents hold that saving faith must be founded on Christ

Himself, not on the means of grace.  This reasoning, common to the

Reformed, the 'enthusiasts' of all shades, and modern 'experience'

theologians, assumes that faith can and should be based on Christ

to the exclusion of the means of grace."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 152.

 

           Reformed on Warpath against Means of Grace

"Moreover, the advocates of this error [Reformed advocates, against

the Means of Grace] are by no means always irenic people.  Rather,

they go on the warpath and malign the Biblical truth in many ways."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 162.

 

                         Self-Deception

"Another species of self-deception needs to be pointed out in this

connection.  We meet it in the Reformed theologians of every era

and also in their confessions.  We are thinking of their endeavor

to assign to the means of grace the function of externally

expressing, confirming, and sealing what the Holy Ghost works

immediately and internally."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 156.

 

"Some may regard as a 'hard saying' our verdict that the Reformed

doctrine of an immediate operation of the Spirit reduces personal

Christianity to human subjectivism and what amounts to

self-deception."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 159.

 

                           Karl Barth

"The means of grace are thus limited for Barth.  The preacher

descending from the pulpit can never quote Luther and say with

joyful assurance that he has preached the Word of God.  Of course,

he can hope and pray; but he can never know whether the Holy Spirit

has accompanied the preached Word, and hence whether his words were

the Word of God.  To know this, or even to wish to know it, would

be a presumptuous encroachment of man upon the sovereign freedom of

God."

Hermann Sasse, Here We Stand, trans. Theodore G. Tappert,

Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1946, p. 161.

 

                    Hodge and Means of Grace

"In describing the Lutheran doctrine as binding the activity of the

Holy Ghost to the Word of God, Charles Hodge ventures to remark:

'This theory cuts us off from all intercourse with the Spirit and

all dependence upon Him as a personal voluntary agent.'" (Hodge,

Systematic Theology, III, p. 482; also II, p. 656f.)

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 152.

 

                           Synergists

"Behind the synergists' teaching regarding the means of grace,

which makes room for assistance by man, lurks the denial of the

perfection of the reconciliation effected by Christ's work of

redemption."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 125.

 

                        Heretics' Enmity

"Luther's remark about the enmity of all heretics against the grace

of God is an important axiomatic statement.  Every heresy that has

sprung up was caused by the heretic's inability to believe that man

becomes righteous in the sight of God, and is saved, by grace

alone.  That is the real rock of offense against which all

heretics, all false teachers, dash their head."

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 163.

 

Lutheran Confessions passages: Apology VII-VIII 36; SA-III VIII 10;

FC SD II 48; AC V

John T. Mueller, "Grace, Means of,"

Lutheran Cyclopedia, Erwin L. Lueker, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1975, p. 344.

 

                   Indifferentism Out of Place

"Hence indifferentism here is surely not in place.  On the

contrary, we must challenge the teaching of any operation of the

Spirit independently of the Word within the Christian Church, and

combat it as a foreign element that has penetrated into the

Christian doctrine and as a deadly enemy of living personal

faith."

Francis Pieper

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vols., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1950, III,  p. 161f.

 

"For the confounding of Law and Gospel that is common among the

sects consists in nothing else than this, that they instruct

alarmed sinners by prayer and inward wrestling to fight their way

into a state of grace until they feel grace indwelling in them,

instead of pointing them to the Word and the Sacraments."

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 153.

Ninth thesis

 

D.  Pietism

 

              Separate Visible and Invisible Church

"Pietist preachers were anxious to discover and in a certain sense

to separate the invisible congregation from the visible

congregation.  They had to meet demands different than those of the

preceding period:  they were expected to witness, not in the

objective sense, as Luther did, to God's saving acts toward all

men, but in a subjective sense of faith, as they themselves had

experienced it.  In this way Pietism introduced a tendency toward

the dissolution of the concept of the ministry in the Lutheran

Church."

Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius

Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House,

1965, III,  p. 1943.

 

                    Weakened Confessionalism

"Pietism greatly weakened the confessional consciousness which was

characteristic of orthodox Lutheranism."

Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol.,

ed. Julius Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House,

1965, III,  p. 1945.

 

"One who had experienced the wonder of faith in his inner life is

the true witness, even if he had not been called in an external

sense according to the order of the church.  It now was relatively

easy to introduce lay preaching, thought it remained somewhat

incompatible with the Lutheran Confessions."

Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius

Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House,

1965, III,  p. 1944.

 

            Reformed Errors Filtered through Pietism

"Furthermore, it must be admitted that the Reformed teaching of the

means of grace filtered, particularly through Pietism, also into

the Lutheran Church."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 143.

 

"What may be the reason why the Pietists, who were really

well-intentioned people, hit upon the doctrine that no one could be

a Christian unless he had ascertained the exact day and hour of his

conversion?  The reason is that they imagined a person must

suddenly experience a heavenly joy and hear an inner voice telling

him that he had been received into grace and had become a

child of God.  Having conceived this notion of the mode and manner

of conversion, they were forced to declare that a person must be

able to name the day and hour when he was converted, became a new

creature, received forgiveness of sins, and was robed in the

righteousness of Christ.  However, we have already come to

understand in part what a great, dangerous, and fatal error this

is."

C. F. W. Walther,

The Proper Distinction Between Law and Gospel, trans., W. H. T.

Dau, St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1928, p. 194f.

Thesis IX

 

              Not Means of Grace but Inward State

"In so far as Pietism did not point poor sinners directly to the

means of grace, but led them to reflect on their own inward state

to determine whether their contrition was profound enough and their

faith of the right caliber, it actually denied the complete

reconciliation by Christ (the satisfactio vicaria), robbed

justifying faith of its true object, and thus injured personal

Christianity in its foundation and Christian piety in its very

essence."

Francis Pieper,

Christian Dogmatics, 3 vol., trans., Walter W. F. Albrecht,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1953, III,  p. 175.

 

"Conversion was seen as a one-time act, consisting of God's offer

of grace and man's decision to accept it, as 'the breakthrough of

grace.'  Perhaps it was not said in so many words; at any rate it

was a tacit assumption."

Martin Schmidt, "Pietism,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius

Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1965,

III,  p. 1899.

                        Pietist True Church, the Conventicle

"The church is no longer the community of those who have been

called by the Word and the Sacraments, but association of the

reborn, of those who 'earnestly desire to be Christians'...The

church in the true sense consists of the small circles of pietists,

the 'conventicles,' where everyone knows everyone else and where

experiences are freely exchanged."

Martin Schmidt, "Pietism,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius

Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House,

1965, III,  p. 1899.

 

                    No Need for Divine Means

"Only little weight is attached to the ministry of the Word, to

worship services, the Sacraments, to confession and absolution, and

to the observance of Christian customs; a thoroughly regenerated

person does not need these crutches at all.  Pietism stressed the

personal element over against the institutional; voluntariness

versus compulsion; the present versus tradition, and the rights of

the laity over against the pastors."

Martin Schmidt, "Pietism,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius

Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House,

1965, III,  p. 1899.

 

"Since the age of Rationalism and Lutheran Pietism a new spirit has

crept into the life of the church which is un-Lutheran,

un-Evangelical, and un-biblical.  The Sacraments have been

neglected at the expense of the Word."

Walter G. Tillmanns, "Means of Grace: Use of,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., Julius Bodensieck,

Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1965, II,  p. 1505.

 

                Pietists Avoid Doctrinal Issues

"All those doctrinal questions which were not immediately connected

with the personal life of faith were avoided.  The standard for the

interpretation of Scripture thus became the need of the individual

for awakening, consolation, and exhortation.  The congregation as

a totality was lost from view; in fact, pietistic preaching was

(and is) more apt to divide the congregation than to hold it

together."

Helge Nyman, "Preaching (Lutheran): History,"

The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol., ed. Julius

Bodensieck, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1965,

III,  p. 1943.

 

 

III. Baptism

 

                           Anabaptists

 

                                  Grace in Baptism

"It is taught among us that Baptism is necessary and that grace is

offered through it.  Children, too, should be baptized, for in

Baptism they are committed to God and become acceptable to him.

On this account the Anabaptists who teach that infant Baptism is

not right are rejected."

Augsburg Confession, Article IX, Baptism, The Book of Concord,

ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:  Fortress Press,

1983, p. 33.  German trans.

 

                      Anabaptists Condemned

"To obtain such faith God instituted the office of the ministry,

that is, provided the Gospel and the sacraments.  Through these, as

through means, he gives the Holy Spirit, who works faith, when and

where he pleases, in those who hear the Gospel.  And the Gospel

teaches that we have a gracious God, not by our own merits but by

the merit of Christ, when we believe this.  Condemned are the

Anabaptists and others who teach that the Holy Spirit comes to us

through our own preparations, thoughts, and works without the

external word of the Gospel."

Augsburg Confession, Article V, The Office of the Ministry,

The Book of Concord,

ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:  Fortress Press,

1983, p. 31.  German trans.

 

                      Contempt for Baptism

"We should be on our guard against the Anabaptists and sectarian

spirits, who speak  contemptuously of Baptism and say that it is

nothing but ordinary water, which helps no one.  They look at the

sacred act as a cow looks at a new door; for they see a poor

preacher standing there or some woman who baptizes in an emergency,

are offended at the sight, and say:  Indeed!  What might Baptism

be?  Moreover, they state:  Whoever does not believe is really not

baptized.  In this way they dishonor and blaspheme the most worthy

Sacrament, not seeing any farther than a horse or a cow sees...."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass, St.

Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 45.

John 1:30-32

                        But No Children?

Acts 2:41 (KJV)   Then they that gladly received his [word] were

baptized: and the same day there were added <unto them> about three

thousand souls.

                       Baptism Not Useless

"Among us, the Gospel is taught purely and diligently.  We have

therefore received this fruit from it, by God's favor, that no

Anabaptists have arisen in our churches since our people have been

armed by God's Word against the wicked and seditious faction of

these robbers.  Among the many errors of the Anabaptists that we

condemn is also their assertion that the Baptism of children

is useless.  It is most certain that the promise of salvation also

applies to little children.  It does not apply to those who are

outside of Christ's church, where there is neither Word nor

sacrament, because Christ regenerates through Word and sacrament."

Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article IX, Baptism, #2,

The Book of Concord,

ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:  Fortress Press,

1959, p. 178.  Matthew 28:19

 

                      The Power of Baptism

"To be sure, Baptism is so great that if you turn from sins and

appeal to the covenant of Baptism, your sins are forgiven.  Only

see to it--if you sin in this wicked and wanton manner by presuming

on God's grace--that the judgment does not lay hold of you and

forestall your turning back.  And even if you then wanted to

believe and trust in your Baptism, your trial might by God's

decree, be so great that faith could not stand the strain.  If they

scarcely remain in the faith who do no sin or who fall because of

sheer weakness, where will your brazen wickedness remain, which has

challenged and mocked God's grace?  Let us, therefore, walk with

care and fear that we may hold fast the riches of God's grace with

a firm faith and joyfully give thanks to His mercy forever and

ever.  Amen."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 57.

Treatise on Baptism, 1519

 

"One must not make the sweeping assertion:  God is not worshiped by

anything external.  Therefore we should not ridicule all things

that are external in the worship of God.  For when God speaks about

a splinter, His Word makes the splinter as important as the sun.

It is, therefore, profane language to say that the water of Baptism

is only water; for the water of Baptism has the Word added to it.

Therefore it is like a glowing or fiery iron, which is as truly

fire as it is iron and does all that fire usually does.  But only

the pious see and appreciate the Word in the water; a cow or a dog

sees only water."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 45.

Psalm 122:3

 

"The world is now full of sects which exclaim that Baptism is

merely an external matter and that external matters are of no use.

However, let it be ever so much an external matter; here stand

God's Word and command which institute, establish, and confirm

Baptism.  However, whatever God institutes and commands cannot be

useless but must be an altogether precious matter, even if it

were worth less than a straw."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 43.

Large Catechism

Matthew 28:19

 

"Those who claim that Baptism is not a Means of Grace, no washing

of regeneration, must continually deny these words of Scripture,

Gal. 3:27:  'For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ,

have put on Christ."  [Also Acts 2:38; Titus 3:5]

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 40.  Galatians 3:27

 

                         Infant Baptism

"How can there be any reason for the baptism of little children

except according to this understanding:  No one is free from

defilement, even if he has lived but one day on earth.  And because

through the Sacrament of Baptism the filth of our birth is removed,

therefore also little children are baptized."

[Origen, Homily 14 on Luke]

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1971, I,  p. 250.

Luke

 

"For this reason the catholic church preaches that little children

ought to be baptized, because of original sin, concerning which

that most holy man well exclaimed: 'I was brought forth in

iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.'"  [Chrysostom,

Homily on Adam and Eve]

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1971, I,  p. 250f.

Cf. Weinrich article on term "Catholic"

Genesis

 

"To be sure, we are all called Christians.  We are baptized and

regenerated through Baptism.  But all of us do not remain with our

Baptism.  Many fall away from Christ and become false Christians.

But the honest Christians are thinly sown."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 280.

"There is on earth no greater comfort than Baptism."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 61.

 

"Thus we see what a very splendid thing Baptism is.  It snatches us

from the jaws of the devil, makes us God's own, restrains and

removes sin, and then daily strengthens the new man within us.  It

is and remains ever efficacious until we pass from this state of

misery to eternal glory.  For this reason everyone should consider

his Baptism as his daily dress, to be worn constantly.  Every day

he should be found in the faith and its fruits, suppressing the old

man, and growing up in the new; for if we want to be Christians, we

must practice the work whereby we are Christians.  But if anyone

falls from baptismal grace, let him return to it.  For as Christ,

the Mercy Seat, does not withdraw from us or forbid us to come to

Him again even though we sin, so all His treasures and gifts also

remain with us."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass, St.

Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 61.

Article on baptism, 1529

 

"Whoever is baptized in Christ is baptized through His suffering

and blood or, to state it more clearly, through Baptism he is

bathed in the blood of Christ and is cleansed from sins.  For this

reason St. Paul calls Baptism a "washing of regeneration" (Titus

3:5); and according to what Christians say and picture, the

Sacraments flow from the wounds of Christ.  And what they say and

picture is right." [Plass footnote: "Thus Jerome (d. 420) sees the

Sacrament symbolized by the blood and water that flowed from the

side of the dead Christ (John 19:34).  Similarly St. Augustine (d.

430).  In Luther's days pictures and woodcuts presented the same

view.  See W 30, II, 527, note; SL 13a, 491f.]

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 46.

to Duke George, 1533

John 19:34

 

"There are the infants, bare and naked in body and soul, having

neither faith nor works.  Then the Christian Church comes forward

and prays, that God would pour faith into the child; not that our

faith should help the child, but that it may obtain a faith of its

own.  If it has faith, then after that whatever it does is well

done, whether it suckle its mother's breast, or whether it soil

itself, or whatever it may please to do."

Martin Luther,

Sermons of Martin Luther, 8 vols., ed., John Nicholas Lenker,

Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1983, IV,  p. 378.

Twelfth Sunday after Trinity

Mark 7:31-37

 

"Observe from this text how Christ in plain words ascribes to

baptism, which He calls water, such glory and power as to say that

the Holy Spirit is present in it, and that by its means a person is

born anew.  By this statement all false doctrines and errors

against the doctrine of faith and baptism are overthrown."

Martin Luther,

Sermons of Martin Luther, 8 vols., ed., John Nicholas Lenker,

Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1983, III,  p. 434.

Trinity Sunday

John 3:1-15

 

[endangered infant not baptized in womb] "But the women who are

present at the birth should kneel down and with a prayer of faith

commit the endangered infant to God who is mighty and able to do

more than we ask.  Without a doubt He will accept the infant for

the sake of the prayer of the believers."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 49.

J. Aurifaber, undated

 

"There is one body and one Spirit--just as you were called to one

hope when you were called--one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one

God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all."

NIV.  Ephesians 4:4-6

 

Ephesians 5:26 (KJV)   That he might sanctify and cleanse it with

the washing of water by the [word], Ephesians 5:27 (KJV)   That he

might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or

wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without

blemish. 

 

"I still maintain, as I have maintained in the Postil (SL 11,

496f.) that the surest Baptism is infant Baptism.  For an old

person may deceive, may come to Christ as a Judas and permit

himself to be baptized.  But a child cannot deceive.  It comes to

Christ in Baptism as John came to Him and as the little children

were brought to Him, that His Word and work may come over them,

touch them, and thus make them holy.  For His Word and work cannot

pass by without effect; and in Baptism they are directed at the

child alone.  If they were to fail of success here, they would have

to be entire failures and useless means, which is impossible."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 50.

Letter to two ministers, 1528

 

                     Baptism Belongs to God

"The devil is always plaguing the world by keeping people from

distinguishing between the work of God and the work of men....But

you should know that though no human being believed Baptism and the

Gospel, the Gospel and Baptism would still be right; for both are

not mine but God's Word and work."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, II,  p. 705.

November 24, 1537 John 1:30-34

"But here it is written that when Christ was baptized, all three

Persons of the Trinity were present--God the Father, God the Son,

God the Holy Spirit...and that the heavens stood open, too.  In

fact, God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit daily stand about and at

the side of our own Baptism....For this reason we should highly

esteem and honor Baptism and say:  Baptism was not devised by any

human being, but God instituted it; and it is not simple water,

but God's Word is in it and with it, which makes of its water a

washing of the soul and a washing of regeneration."

Martin Luther,

What Luther Says, An Anthology, 3 vols., ed., Ewald Plass,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1959, I,  p. 45.

John 1:30-32

 

IV.  Holy Communion

 

                        Closed Communion

"Is the Lord's Supper the place to display my toleration, my

Christian sympathy, or my fellowship with another Christian, when

that is the very point in which most of all we differ; and in which

the difference means for me everything--means for me, the reception

of the Savior's atonement?  Is this the point to be selected for

the display of Christian union, when in fact it is the

very point in which Christian union does not exist?"

Theodore E. Schmauk and C. Theodore Benze,

The Confessional Principle and the Confessions, as

Embodying the Evangelical Confession of the Christian Church,

Philadelphia:  1911, p. 905f.

 

                     Communion as Medicine

"The body of Christ is to the sick a medicine, to pilgrims a way;

it strengthens the weak, delights the strong, heals weariness,

preserves health.  Through it man becomes more gentle under

reproof, more patient under labor, more ardent for love, wiser for

caution, more ready to obey, more devoted to giving of thanks."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer, St.

Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 234.

 

                           Chrysostom

Chrysostom:  "If those who touched the hem of His garment were

properly healed, how much more shall we be strengthened if we have

Him in us whole?  He will quiet in us the savage law of our

members, He will quench the perturbations of the mind, drive out

all sicknesses, raise us up from every fall, and, when the power of

the enemy has been overcome, He will incite us to true piety and

indeed will transform us into His own image."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 234.

 

                                      Ignatius

[Ignatius calls the Eucharist] "a medicine of immortality, an

antidote, that we may not die but live in God through Jesus Christ,

a cleansing remedy through warding off and driving out evils."

Martin Chemnitz,

Examination of the Council of Trent, trans., Fred Kramer,

St. Louis:  Concordia Publishing House, 1986, II,  p. 234.

 

            The Moment and the Synodical Conference

"It should perhaps be mentioned also that some of our Lutheran

teachers limited the real presence to the moment of eating and

drinking.  This, too, goes beyond the specific words of Christ."

Review of Bjarne Wollan Teigen, The Lord's Supper in the Theology

of Martin Chemnitz, W. Gawrisch, Wisconsin Lutheran Quarterly,

Spring, 1987, 84,  p. 155.

 

                 God's Honor and Real Presence

"The Reformed, and all Reformed sects, deny the Real Presence of

the body and blood of Christ in the Lord's Supper.  Through this

they detract from God's honor."

Francis Pieper,

The Difference between Orthodox and Heterodox Churches, and

Supplement, Coos Bay, Oregon:  St. Paul's Lutheran Church,

1981, p. 36.

 

V.   The Sermon

 

                   God's Will and the Sermon

"It is not God's will that anyone should be damned but that all men

should turn themselves to him and be saved forever...To this end,

in his boundless kindness and mercy, God provides for the public

proclamation of his divine, eternal law and the wonderful counsel

concerning our redemption, namely, the holy and only saving Gospel

of his eternal Son, our only Saviour and Redeemer, Jesus Christ.

Thereby he gathers an eternal church for himself out of the human

race and works in the hearts of men true repentance and knowledge

of their sins and true faith in the Son of God, Jesus Christ.  And

it is God's will to call men to eternal salvation, to draw them to

himself, convert them, beget them anew, and sanctify them through

this means and in no other way--namely, through his holy Word

(which one hears it preached or reads it) and the sacraments (when

they are used according to his Word)." 1 Cor. 1:21

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article II, Free Will, #50,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 530f.  1 Corinthians 1:21

 

 

                       Office of Ministry

"To obtain such faith God instituted the office of the ministry,

that is, provided the Gospel and the sacraments.  Through these, as

through means, he gives the Holy Spirit, who works faith, when and

where he pleases, in those who hear the Gospel.  And the Gospel

teaches that we have a gracious God, not by our own merits but by

the merit of Christ, when we believe this.  Condemned are the

Anabaptists and others who teach that the Holy Spirit comes to us

through our own preparations, thoughts, and works without the

external word of the Gospel."

Augsburg Confession, V., The Office of the Ministry,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1983, p. 31.  German trans.

 

                       The Lutheran Sermon

"To the Lutheran the sermon, as the preached Word, is a means of

grace.  Through it the Holy Spirit calls, gathers, enlightens, and

sanctifies the whole Christian church on earth.  It is a constant

offer of pardon; a giving of life, as well as a nourishing and

strengthening of life.  In the Reformed churches the sermon is apt

to be more hortatory and ethical.  It partakes more of the

sacrificial than of the sacramental character.  The individuality

of the preacher, the subjective choice of a text, the using of it

merely for a motto, the discussion of secular subjects, the

unrestrained platform style, lack of reverence, lack of dignity,

and many other faults are common, and are not regarded as

unbecoming the messenger of God in His temple.  Where there is a

properly trained Lutheran consciousness such things repel, shock,

and are not tolerated."

G. H. Gerberding,

The Lutheran Pastor, Minneapolis:  Augsburg Publishing House, 1915,

p. 278.

 

                        Diligent to Hear

"'The hearers of the Word of God who understand the doctrine of the

means of grace will be diligent hearers of it.  While God has

commanded the pastor to preach the Gospel, He has commanded the

congregation to hear it.  The Gospel is the means not only of

converting the sinner, but also of strengthening the faith

of those who already are converted.  Christians having this

knowledge will be faithful and diligent in the use of the means of

grace.'"

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"

The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1946, II,  p. 346.

 

                       Real Church Growth

"The correct understanding of the doctrine of the Means of Grace

will have a salutary influence on pastors and hearers; without the

proper use of the Means of Grace no sinner can expect to be saved

and no Church can hope to grow."

Edwin E. Pieplow, "The Means of Grace,"

The Abiding Word, ed., Theodore Laetsch, St. Louis:  Concordia

Publishing House, 1946, II,  p. 344.

 

                         God Wills the Word to be Effective

"We shall now set forth from the Word of God how man is converted

to God, how and by what means (namely, the oral Word and the holy

sacraments) the Holy Spirit wills to be efficacious in us by giving

and working true repentance, faith, and new spiritual power and

ability for good in our hearts, and how we are to relate ourselves

to and use these means."

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article II, Free Will, 48,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 530.

 

              Do Not Question Work of Holy Spirit

"On the one hand, it is true that both the preacher's planting and

watering and the hearer's running and willing would be in vain, and

no conversion would follow, if there were not added the power and

operation of the Holy Spirit, who through the Word preached and

heard illuminates and converts hearts so that men believe this Word

and give their assent to it.  On the other hand, neither the

preacher nor the hearer should question this grace and operation of

the Holy Spirit, but should be certain that, when the Word of God

is preached, pure and unalloyed according to God's command and

will, and when the people diligently and earnestly listen to and

meditate on it, God is certainly present with his grace and gives

what man is unable by his own powers to take or to give.  We should

not and cannot pass judgment on the Holy Spirit's presence,

operations and gifts merely on the basis of our feeling..."

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article II, Free Will,

55-56,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 531f.

 

                       Most Important Act

"The most important of all the pastor's acts is his public

preaching...A minister may be ever so good as a liturgist, ever so

gifted as a ruler of his congregation, or in private pastoral work,

but all this can never take the place of right preaching."

(Walther, Pastorale, p. 76)

G. H. Gerberding, The Lutheran Pastor, Minneapolis:  Augsburg

Publishing House, 1915, p. 275.

 

            Christ Assures Us: the Word is Effective

"For Christ wants to assure us, as was necessary, that the Word is

efficacious when it is delivered by men and that we should not look

for another word from heaven."

Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXVIII, Eccles. Power,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,

Philadelphia:  Fortress Press, 1959, p. 284.

 

"In his Word he has revealed to us as much as we need to know in

this life, and wherever the Scriptures in this case give us clear,

certain testimony, we shall simply believe it and not argue that

the human nature in Christ is not capable of it."

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article VIII., Person of

Christ, The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert,

Philadelphia:  Fortress Press, 1959, p. 601.

 

"For the Word through which we are called is a ministry of the

Spirit--'which gives the Spirit' (2 Cor. 3:8) and a 'power of God'

to save (Rom. 1:16).  And because the Holy Spirit wills to be

efficacious through the Word, to strengthen us, and to give us

power and ability, it is God's will that we should accept the Word,

believe and obey it."

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article XI., Election,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 621.

 

"Every poor sinner must therefore attend on it, hear it with

diligence, and in no way doubt the drawing of the Father because

the Holy Spirit wills to be present in the Word and to be

efficacious with his power through it.  And this is the drawing of

the Father."

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article XI., Election,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 629.

 

"The reason for such contempt of the Word is not God's

foreknowledge but man's own perverse will, which rejects or

perverts the means and instrument of the Holy Spirit which God

offers to him through the call and resists the Holy Spirit who

wills to be efficaciously active through the Word, as Christ says,

'How often would I have gathered you together and you would not!'

(Matt. 23:37)

Formula of Concord, Solid Declaration, Article XI, Election, 41,

The Book of Concord, ed., Theodore G. Tappert, Philadelphia:

Fortress Press, 1959, p. 623. Matthew 23:37

 

                      Efficacy of Judgment

"When the efficacy of Word and Sacraments encounters man's unbelief

and persistent resistance, their efficacy is not destroyed; but it

is transformed from an efficacy of grace to one of judgment (2

Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 11:29)."

Henry Eyster Jacobs,

A Summary of the Christian Faith, Philadelphia:  General Council

Publication House, 1913, p. 320.

 

                      Baier:  Power of Word

"Baier (124):  'Truly that same infinite virtue which is

essentially per se and independently in God, and by which He

enlightens and converts men, is communicated to the Word, and,

although it is communicated to the Word, yet it must be considered

as divine'...But it by no means follows from this that there

is a commingling of God and the Word in regard to this divine

power; hence Baier (128) says:  'They frequently and diligently

impress it upon us that the same virtue belongs to God and the

Scriptures, but not in the same way; for that of God is essential,

fundamental, original, and independent, while that of the

Scriptures is dependent and participative or derived.'...Hence it

is said of the Word that it exhibits its power and efficacy

organikos, or instrumentally....'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church,

trans., Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United

Lutheran Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

 

                  Hollazius:  Qualities of Word

"Hollazius (993):  'A divine power is communicated to the Word

by the Holy Spirit joined with it indissolubly.'  Hence, there is

a native or intrinsic power and efficacy belonging to the Word,

deeply inherent in it.  The Dogmaticians draw proofs of this, (1)

From the qualities which the divine Word ascribes to itself, John

6:63; Romans 1:16; Hebrews 4:12-13; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Peter

1:23; James 1:21. (2) From the similar supernatural and divine

operations which are ascribed to the Word of God and the Holy

Spirit, ex. gr., calling, 2 Timothy 2:14; illumination, 2 Peter

1:19; conversion, Jeremiah 23:29; regeneration, 1 Peter 1:23;

justification, 2 Corinthians 3:9; sanctification, John 17:17."

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

 

"(3) Hollazius (993):  'The Word of God, as such, cannot be

conceived of without the divine virtue, or the Holy Spirit, who is

inseparable from His Word.  For if the Holy Spirit could be

separated from the Word of God, it would not be the Word of God or

of the Spirit, but a word of man.  Nor is there any other Word of

God, which is in God, or with which the men of God have been

inspired, than that which is given in the Scriptures or is preached

or is treasured up in the human mind.  But, as it cannot be denied

that that is the divine will, counsel, mind, and the wisdom of God,

so it cannot be destitute of the divine virtue or efficacy.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

 

"Hollazius (993) uses the following figures:  'It possesses and

retains its internal power and efficacy even when not used, just as

the illuminating power of the sun continues, although, when the

shadow of the moon intervenes, no person may see it; and just as an

internal efficacy belongs to the seed, although it may not be sown

in the field.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 506.

 

"'In order to avoid misapprehension, it is expressly observed that

the Word does not operate physically (by the contact of an agent,

as opium, poison, fire, etc.), but morally  (by enlightening the

mind, moving the will, etc.); and a distinction is made between the

efficacy of the Word considered in the first act and in the second

act, or between efficacy and efficiency.  When it is said that the

Word operates extra usum, when not used, it is only meant that the

power is constantly inherent in the Word, just as the power to give

light always exists in the sun; so that, when the Word is to

produce a certain effect, the power must not first come to it, but

that the Word exercises its legitimate influence only where it is

properly used.'" (Hollazius, 993)

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 506.

 

"Hollazius (992) thus sums up the doctrine:  'The Word of God is

the most efficacious means of salvation, for its power and efficacy

are not only objective, but also effective; not consisting in moral

suasion, but in supernatural operation, not external and coming to

it when used by men, but intrinsic in the Word; not accidental, but

necessary, by a divinely ordained necessity, and therefore not

separable, but perpetual, inherent in the Word itself extra usum,

as the first act.  This efficacy is truly divine, producing the

same effect as the Holy Spirit, who is perpetually united with the

Word, which (effect) the Spirit influences together with the Word,

by the divine power which belongs to the Holy Spirit originally and

independently, but to the divine Word communicatively and

dependently, on account of its mysterious, intimate,

and individual union with the Spirit.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 507.

 

           Hulsem:  Holy Spirit Never Absent from Word

"Hulsem. (in Quenstedt, I, 186) says:  'That elevation of the sense

of the Word, as they call it, is by no means an accessory and

separate power of the Holy Spirit, which may sometimes be absent

from the Word; but the Word of God embraces in itself, by its own

natural constitution, wonderful and inexplicable divine energy, and

power of penetration, far better adapted than the sentences of

Seneca and Cato to arouse the minds of readers.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 508.

 

            Quensted:  Unity of Energy and Operation

"Quenstedt  (I, 183):  'We are to assume here not only a certain

conjunction or union of distinct actions, or even a unity of aims

or effects, but also a unity of energy and operation.  For the Holy

Spirit does not by Himself do something, and the Word of God by

itself something else, in the conversion of men; but they produce

the one effect by one and the same action.  For such is the

peculiar nature of the principal and subordinate causes,

intrinsically united together, that they produce an effect by one

and the same action.  Thus the soul and the eye see by a single

action, and not by distinct actions.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 505.

 

"Quenstedt (I. 172):  'The divine Word is not the principal in the

work of conversion, regeneration, and salvation, but it is only a

suitable means or organ which God ordinarily uses in producing

spiritual effects, not indeed by necessity or indigence, as if He

so bound His efficacy in the conversion of men to His Word that He

could not convert men without any means, or by any other means or

organ than His Word if He wished, but of His own free will, because

thus it pleased Him.  1 Corinthians 1:21.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 505f.  1 Corinthians 1:21

 

"Quenstedt (I, 170):  'Whether the Word be read or not, whether it

be heard and believed or not, yet the efficacy of its spiritual

effects is always intrinsically inherent in it by the divine

arrangement and communication, nor does this divine efficacy only

come to it when it is used.  For the Word of God, as such, cannot

even be conceived of apart from the divine virtue and gracious

working of the Holy Spirit, because this is inseparable from the

Word of God.'"

Heinrich Schmid,

Doctrinal Theology of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, trans.,

Charles A. Hay and Henry E. Jacobs, Philadelphia:  United Lutheran

Publication House, 1899, p. 506.